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Call our our promotions manager using our Toll Free Number 1-800-252-6051 and Tree World Plant Care Products can provide you with FREE Plantskydd Deer & Rabbit Repellent to use as door-prize promotions for your next meeting, conference, or event. (Be advised-TW will conduct 'due diligence' prior to shipping product.)
Creating A Deer & Rabbit Proof Garden
the definitive book for creating a deer proof garden.
Creating A Deer & Rabbit Proof Garden, is the last reference you'll ever need in order to own a worry free garden!
It's the final word on selecting plants and creating a landscape that will not ring the dinner bell for deer.
Much more than a simple list of plants, the best use for each plant is explained, exactly where to plant them for the best results, the ultimate height and spread of each plant and how to care for them.
Spectacular photographs show you in great detail, what each plant looks like.
Many plants feature 5 full color photographs, showing you all 4 seasons of glory.
This book is a truly unique design and concept.
* 144 pages
* 255 full color photographs
Managing White-Tailed Deer
in Suburban Environments
A Technical Guide
Anthony J. DeNicola, Kurt C. VerCauteren, Paul D. Curtis, and Scott E. Hygnstrom
A publication of Cornell Cooperative Extension, the Wildlife Society-
Wildlife Damage Management Working Group, and the Northeast Wildlife
Damage Research and Outreach Cooperative
(note to reader) The following is an edited extract of the Techinical Guide.
Repellents are best suited for use in orchards, nurseries,
gardens, and on ornamentals or other high-value
plants. High application cost, label restrictions on use,
and variable effectiveness make most repellents
impractical for row crops, pastures, or other low-value
commodities. Success with repellents is measured in
reduction of damage; total elimination of damage
should not be expected (Craven and Hygnstrom
Repellents work by reducing the attractiveness and
palatability of treated plants to a level lower than that
for other available forage. Repellents are more effective
on less palatable plant species than for those that
are highly preferred (Swihart et al. 1991). Effectiveness
also depends on the availability of alternate forage
(Conover 1987, Conover and Kania 1988, Andelt
et al. 1991), and repellent performance seems to be
negatively correlated with deer density.
Repellents have traditionally been classified as odor or
taste-based products. Examples of odor-based repellents
include products containing rotten eggs, soap,
predator urine, blood meal, and other animal parts.
The primary advantage of odor-based products is that deer
usually realize the plants are treated when they approach within
a few feet, so the plants remain undamaged.
Taste-based repellents are sprayed or dusted on the foliage
to protect plants from deer browsing. Examples of these
materials include hot sauce (contains capsaicin, the
active ingredient in hot peppers) and thiram. The primary
disadvantage of taste-based products is that deer
must sample and damage the vegetation before they
are affected by the repellent.
More recently, scientists have classified repellents by
four specific modes of action: fear, conditioned aversion,
pain, and taste (Beauchamp 1997, Mason
1997). Fear-inducing repellents emit sulfurous odors
that mimic predator scents. Conditioned aversion is
an avoidance response associated with a treated item
and an illness. Pain-inducing repellents affect the
trigeminal receptors located in the mucous membranes
of the eyes, nose, mouth, and throat. Taste
repellents generally include a bitter agent that makes
treated items unpalatable.
In addition to mode of action, several other factors
that influence the effectiveness of repellents must be
considered. Some repellents weather poorly, so it is
usually best to use products that contain a commercial
"sticker" or adherent. Also, repellents only protect the
foliage to which they are applied. New growth that
emerges after the application of the treatment is
unprotected (Allan et al. 1984). Therefore, repellents
have to be reapplied repeatedly during the growing
season to retain their effectiveness (Sullivan et al.
1985, DeYoe and Schapp 1987, Andelt et al. 1991).
For peak efficacy, many repellents should be reapplied
every four to five weeks as long as deer-feeding pressure
remains high (Sayre and Richmond 1992).
Many deer repellents have been evaluated in the scientific
literature (Palmer et al. 1985, El Hani and
Conover 1997, Wagner and Nolte 2000). Commercial
repellents do not perform equally, and research has
indicated that odor-based products often out-perform
taste-based materials. Always follow label instructions
for appropriate application.
note: The source document (56 pages in .pdf format) of this extract can be found at:
We also recommend:
The Internet Center for Wildlife Damage Management - a non-profit, grant funded site that provides research-based information on how to responsibly handle wildlife damage problems.